Technical Note: Routing behavior depending on distance and priority for static routes, and Policy Based Routes
Products
FortiGate
Description
This articles explains how the FortiGate routes traffic with two static default routes depending on various combination of administrative distance, priority, and if a Policy Based Route is present.


Network scenario used for this example :

                     [        FortiGate        ]
[ PC ] -- LAN ------ [ switch           port16 ] --- ISP1 (192.168.182.0/23)
(10.160.0.0/16)      [                  port13 ] --- ISP2 (172.31.224.0/23)



Note : the "priority" parameter is used in situation where a static route needs to be present in order to accept incoming traffic and pass the RPF check (anti-spoofing). Please check related articles for more details.


Preferences :
Scope
Solution

Scenario 1 : same distance , same priority.

Configuration example :


config router static
    edit 1
        set device "port16"
        set gateway 192.168.183.254
    next
    edit 2
        set device "port13"
        set gateway 172.31.225.254
    next
end



The routing table contains the two static routes and ECMP will be applied (See related article about ECMP) :

FGT# get router  info routing-table static
S*      0.0.0.0/0 [10/0] via 172.31.225.254, port13
                  [10/0] via 192.168.183.254, port16


Verify egress interface on ping from PC to 10.70.202.225 with a sniffer trace  :

FGT# diagnose  sniffer packet any "icmp" 4
6.748817 switch in 10.160.0.93 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request
6.748858 port16 out 192.168.182.200 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request



Scenario 2 : different distance, same priority.

Configuration example:


config router static
    edit 1
        set device "port16"
        set gateway 192.168.183.254
    next
    edit 2
        set device "port13"
        set distance 5
        set gateway 172.31.225.254
    next
end



The routing table contains only the static route with the lowest distance :

FGT# get router  info routing-table static
S*      0.0.0.0/0 [5/0] via 172.31.225.254, port13


Scenario 3a : same distance, different priority.

Configuration example:


config router static

    edit 1
        set device "port16"
        set gateway 192.168.183.254
        set priority 2
    next
    edit 2
        set device "port13"
        set gateway 172.31.225.254
        set priority 5
    next
end



The routing table contains the two static routes but only the one with the lowest priority (port 16) is used for routing traffic. The second one is used to accept traffic ingressing port13.

FGT# get router  info routing-table static
S*      0.0.0.0/0 [10/0] via 192.168.183.254, port16, [2/0]
                  [10/0] via 172.31.225.254, port13, [5/0]


Verify egress interface on ping from PC to 10.70.202.225 with a sniffer trace  :

FGT# diagnose sniffer packet  any "icmp" 4
3.518463 switch in 10.160.0.93 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request
3.518481 port16 out 192.168.182.200 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request


Scenario 3b : same distance, different priority.

Configuration example:


config router static

    edit 1
        set device "port16"
        set gateway 192.168.183.254
        set priority 2
    next
    edit 2
        set device "port13"
        set gateway 172.31.225.254
        set priority 1
    next
end



The routing table contains the two static routes but only the one with the lowest priority (port 13) is used for routing traffic. The second one is used to accept traffic ingressing port16.

FGT# get router  info routing-table static
S*      0.0.0.0/0 [10/0] via 172.31.225.254, port13, [1/0]
                  [10/0] via 192.168.183.254, port16, [2/0]


Verify egress interface on ping from PC to 10.70.202.225 with a sniffer trace  :

FGT# diagnose sniffer packet  any "icmp" 4
2.636176 switch in 10.160.0.93 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request
2.636222 port13 out 172.31.224.200 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request


Scenario 4 : same distance, same priority,  policy based route

The goal is to route all HTTP traffic over port13.

Configuration example:


config router static
    edit 1
        set device "port16"
        set gateway 192.168.183.254
    next
    edit 2
        set device "port13"
        set gateway 172.31.225.254
    next
end


config router policy
    edit 1
        set input-device "switch"
        set protocol 6
        set start-port 80
        set end-port 80
        set output-device "port13"
    next
end



Note : no gateway is defined in the Policy Based route above. In this case the FortiGate will lookup the best route in the routing on port13.

The routing table contains the two static routes and ECMP will be applied except for the traffic matching the Policy Based route  routed on port13 :

FGT# get router info routing-table static
S*      0.0.0.0/0 [10/0] via 172.31.225.254, port13
                  [10/0] via 192.168.183.254, port16


Verify egress interface on ping and HTTP from PC to 10.70.202.225 with a sniffer trace  :

FGT# diagnose  sniffer packet any "icmp or port 80" 4
8.488361 switch in 10.160.0.93 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request
8.488409 port16 out 192.168.182.200 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request
19.346273 switch in 10.160.0.93.4090 -> 10.70.202.225.80: syn 3171174784
19.346326 port13 out 172.31.224.200.53106 -> 10.70.202.225.80: syn 3171174784


Scenario 5 : same distance, different priority,  policy based route

The goal is to verify that all HTTP traffic is routed over port13 even though the static route priority in this interface is less preferred than on port 16.

Configuration example:


config router static
    edit 1
        set device "port16"
        set gateway 192.168.183.254
        set priority 2
    next
    edit 2
        set device "port13"
        set gateway 172.31.225.254
        set priority 5
    next
end


config router policy
    edit 1
        set input-device "switch"
        set protocol 6
        set start-port 80
        set end-port 80
        set output-device "port13"
    next
end



Note : no gateway is defined in the Policy Based route above. In this case the FortiGate will lookup the best route in the routing on port13.

The routing table contains the two static routes but only the one with the lowest priority (port 16) is used for routing traffic, except for the traffic matching the Policy Based route which will be routed over port13 :

FGT# get router info routing-table static
S*      0.0.0.0/0 [10/0] via 192.168.183.254, port16, [2/0]
                  [10/0] via 172.31.225.254, port13, [5/0]


Verify egress interface on ping and HTTP from PC to 10.70.202.225 with a sniffer trace  :

FG200B3909600137 # diagnose  sniffer packet  any "icmp or port 80" 4
8.412794 switch in 10.160.0.93 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request
8.412839 port16 out 192.168.182.200 -> 10.70.202.225: icmp: echo request
14.282070 switch in 10.160.0.93.4102 -> 10.70.202.225.80: syn 4033500215
14.290198 port13 out 172.31.224.200.28814 -> 10.70.202.225.80: syn 4033500215


Related Articles
Technical Note: Configuring link redundancy - Traffic load-balancing / load-sharing - ECMP (Equal Cost Multiple Path) - Dual Internet or WAN scenario
Technical Note: Details about FortiOS RPF (Reverse Path Forwarding), also called Anti-Spoofing
Technical Note : Setting priority on static default routes to create a primary (preferred) and a secondary path
Last Modified Date: 01-31-2017 Document ID: FD32103